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Illinois Cannabis Zoning Laws

Illinois Cannabis Zoning Laws

Illinois Cannabis Zoning Laws

Illinois Cannabis Zoning Laws

Illinois Cannabis Zoning Laws Illinois Cannabis Zoning Laws depend greatly on the local governments that are placing “reasonable” restrictions on their community’s cannabis businesses that may operated in their jurisdictional limits. Many communities require a “special use permit” for having cannabis business operations.  Then, there are certain set-backs to that limit the distance a cannabis company may be from certain sensitive businesses or schools, churches, and other things in the city that they want to keep the cannabis business away from by using their zoning authority.  Here’s a lot more on the Illinois Cannabis Zoning Laws. 

Can Your City Ban Cannabis?

At the beginning of this year, Illinois’ cannabis legalization bill, formally known as the “Cannabis Regulation and Tax Act” (the “Cannabis Act”), went into effect. The Cannabis Act creates a comprehensive licensure scheme for the cannabis industry, and allows for adult, recreational use of cannabis. Governor Pritzker kicked off the Cannabis Act by pardoning over 11,000 people convicted of marijuana crimes.

Still, plenty of local communities are approaching legalization with much more caution, and sometimes fear. Lake County, the third-most populous county after Cook and DuPage, intends to impose a one-year moratorium on cannabis in the unincorporated parts of the County. In a lengthy Report of the Recreational Cannabis Task Force, Lake County freely states that

“local government attorneys have differing interpretations of the Act on whether communities can enact separate licensing requirements. It is essential that every community consult with their own counsel prior to enacting a licensing mechanism.”

  1. WHAT DOES THE CANNABIS ACT SAY?

The Cannabis Regulation and Tax Act can be found at 410 ILCS 705/1-5 et seq. Certain parts of the Cannabis Act directly and explicitly preempt any state and local government from regulating cannabis. Section 55-90 of the Act reads:

Except as otherwise provided in this Act, the regulation and licensing of the activities described in this Act are exclusive powers and functions of the State. Except as otherwise provided in this Act, a unit of local government, including a home rule unit, may not regulate or license the activities described in this Act. This Section is a denial and limitation of home rule powers and functions under subsection (h) of Section 6 of Article VII of the Illinois Constitution.

That is, local governments are prohibited from regulating in the area of cannabis except when the Cannabis Act specifically allows it.

Illinois Cannabis Zoning Restrictions on Municipalities 

Note the reference to “home rule powers and functions” in the Illinois Constitution. Article VII, Section 6 of the Illinois Constitution sets forth the definition and rules governing home rule units. Basically, any County which elects a chief executive officer, or any municipality with over 25,000 people constitutes a “home rule” unit. Home rule units are given a great degree of authority to govern their internal affairs. If you’re reading this in Chicago or in the Chicago suburbs, you probably live in a home rule county and probably a home rule city or village as well. And as sub-section (m) of this part of the Illinois Constitution provides, “[p]owers and functions of home rule units shall be construed liberally.”

Conversely, Article VII, Section 7 of the Illinois Constitution covers non-home rule units of government. These units are essentially limited to a few fiscal powers in the Constitution, and then anything else granted to them by other laws. See, e.g., Hawthorne v. Village of Olympia Fields, 790 N.E.2d 832 (Ill. 2003) (striking down a zoning ordinance that had the effect of prohibiting an otherwise lawful home daycare center) If you are reading this from a rural, agricultural community, there is a good chance you live in a non-home rule municipality.

Need Help With Cannabis Zoning

David Silvers

David Silvers

Chicago Business Lawyer

David Silvers practices cannabis and corporate law with litigation experience and first-hand knowledge of start up operations.

Zoning Ordinances For Cannabis In Illinois

So what is the status of zoning restrictions and moratoriums, like those out of Lake County? Section 55-25 discusses local ordinances. While Section 55-25 allows local governments to enact restrictions on the time, place, and manner of legal cannabis, they may not use zoning ordinances as a cover to effectively ban cannabis. Specifically, subsection (1) provides:

A unit of local government, including a home rule unit or any non-home rule county within the unincorporated territory of the county, may enact reasonable zoning ordinances or resolutions, not in conflict with this Act or rules adopted pursuant to this Act, regulating cannabis business establishments. No unit of local government, including a home rule unit or any non-home rule county within the unincorporated territory of the county, may prohibit home cultivation or unreasonably prohibit use of cannabis authorized by this Act.

Local governments like Lake County may be limiting cannabis under the guise of protecting the “health, safety, and welfare” of the community, or some similar phrase. Such justifications should be treated with skepticism, no matter what the issue is. But with respect to bans like Lake County’s, it’s difficult to see how they could possibly be within the bounds of the Cannabis Act.

Illinois Cities May “Reasonably” Restrict Cannabis Businesses with Zoning.

Section 55-25 limits zoning ordinances to those which don’t “unreasonably” prohibit legal uses of cannabis, and there’s nothing more unreasonable than a blanket prohibition or moratorium. For rural, non-home rule municipalities, they might totally lack the authority to enact such zoning ordinances with or without the authority granted by the Cannabis Act. See Hawthorne, supra. Municipalities that get in the way of the overwhelming public support and public demand for legal cannabis are putting themselves at a huge risk for litigation that they stand a strong chance of losing. In Lake County alone, there are roughly 700,000 residents (including your humble author), and many of them won’t be happy when they find out that the County Board is curbing their hard-won rights under the Cannabis Act.

Key Takeaways of Cannabis Zoning in Illinois

  • Illinois Zoning Changes Depending on What City Are Located
  • To find your cities zoning ordinance, Google: “(Your City) Cannabis Ordinance”
  • Illinois Cannabis Laws allow ‘reasonable’ zoning restrictions
  • Cities in Illinois cannot ban cannabis or home grow for medical cannabis patients.

How To Get Help With Your Cannabis Zoning Issues

Feel free to call our law firm with all your questions regarding cannabis zoning, there are many levels of interactions with local governments and we are experienced with assisting business clients in their real estate matters, whether related to cannabis, or not. 

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Call our law offices with your legal questions for help on:

  1. real estate contracts
  2. business contract disputes
  3. Shareholder litigation
  4. cannabis business
  5. fraud actions
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What to Know about Good Faith or Bad Faith – an illustrated easy guide

What to Know about Good Faith or Bad Faith – an illustrated easy guide

Good Faith Is Business

What Does Good Faith Mean?

good faith

good faith

The implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing is implied in every contract.  The implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing is what makes business work.  It requires people to deal with one another fairly.  Businesses and people can trust each other to enter into contracts because good faith requires them to help them get the benefit of their bargain.

Attorney Thomas Howard has helped clients for years enforce their rights under contracts.  And each and everyone of those contracts had something in common – but it was not a term written into any of the contracts.  Our business attorney have helped countless clients with their contracts, below he explains good faith in an easy to understand and Illustrated way.   You can call him at (309) 740-4033.

General Duty of Good Faith and Fair Dealing

A duty of good faith and fair dealing is a tenant of contract law, which often comes up in insurance. Insurance is basically the business of selling contracts that protect against risk. Here’s some relevant case law regarding good faith insurance contract, a well litigated issue:

  • Therefore, an insurer has a duty to act in good faith and fairness to its insured, which requires that it not elevate its own self-interest above the interest of the insured. Monical v. State Farm Insurance Co., 211 Ill.App.3d 215, 569 N.E.2d 1230, 155 Ill.Dec. 619 (4th Dist. 1991).
  • “The insurer’s duty to deal fairly with the insured arises out of the contractual relationship, and thus an insured may sue his insurer for breach of that duty.” Garcia v. Lovellette, 265 Ill.App.3d 724, 639 N.E.2d 935, 937, 203 Ill.Dec. 376 (2d Dist. 1994).
  • While a fiduciary relationship exists between an insured and a broker who acts as the agent for the insured, Illinois law does not classify an insurer as a fiduciary of its insured. Robacki v. Allstate Insurance Co., 127 Ill.App.3d 294, 468 N.E.2d 1251, 1253, 82 Ill.Dec. 471 (1st Dist. 1984); Nielsen v. United Services Automobile Ass’n, 244 Ill.App.3d 658, 612 N.E.2d 526, 531, 183 Ill.Dec. 874 (2d Dist. 1993).
  • Thus, it is not the duty of the insurer to inform the insured of his or her duties. Foamcraft, Inc. v. First State Insurance Co., 238 Ill.App.3d 791, 606 N.E.2d 537, 539, 179 Ill.Dec. 705 (1st Dist. 1992).
  • Likewise, the law has not imposed on an insurer the duty of reviewing the adequacy of an insured’s coverage. Connelly v. Robert J. Riordan & Co., 246 Ill.App.3d 898, 617 N.E.2d 76, 79, 186 Ill.Dec. 837 (1st Dist. 1993).
  • A property insurer similarly has no duty to sell its insured full coverage. Nielsen, supra, 612 N.E.2d at 529.
Thomas Howard

Thomas Howard

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A commercial loan workout attorney with over ten years experence – Thomas Howard answers your questions in the video below.

The Duty of Good Faith & Fair Dealings

Any party to a contract has an unwritten duty to help the other party obtain the benefit of their end of the bargain.  A benefit of the bargain is what you get out of the deal.  Let’s take a quick second to explain the very basics of what forms a contract.

A contract had 3 basic elements

Contract Basics Offer Consideration Acceptance

  • Offer & Acceptance: This is what you buy. Pizza, coffee, plumbing, Netflix, or even legal services.  The offer is what the seller in the contract brings to the table.  It brings the buyer in the door.  The Buyer is accepting the offer.
  • Consideration: This is often money.  In the picture, the coffee is $3.50.  The consideration is two-way, however.  The offer is a consideration as well.  The pizza is half the deal, so is the NetFlix subscription.  Very often the consideration is goods or services in exchange for payment of money.
  • Meeting of the Minds: This is the most complex of the three basic contract elements, and where Good Faith resides.  The intent of the parties to the contact is important. Both intended to get what is called the “benefit of their bargain.” This means you do not get tricked into the deal. You are not making a mistake regarding the terms of the contract.

Meeting of the Minds and Good Faith

Would you enter into a deal to buy a house if you knew every time it rains the basement floods with 3 feet of water?  Perhaps you would if you negotiate a discount for installing a dewatering system.

But would you buy the house with the leaky basement if you did not know about it?  That’s where people get into trouble because they feel as if they are tricked. 

They lacked the requisite meeting of the minds on the deal because if the buyer knew about the basement flooding, he never would have purchased the house.  That is a lack of meeting of the minds that gets to the heart of contract formation.

What if the seller knows about the water in the basement, and lies on the disclosures and says that to the best of his knowledge there is no water in the basement? 

That is fraud, a/k/a bad faith.  The Seller lying about the leaky basement injured the Buyer.  The Buyer can sue the seller for fraud and recover the damages.  The damages would be the cost of repairing the leaky basement.

Interference in the Contract – Bad Faith

The “duty of good faith and fair dealing requires the party vested with contractual discretion not to injure other parties to the contract by action or omission and not to act inconsistently with other parties’ rights.” Id, citing Brzozowski v. Northern Trust Co., 248 Ill.App.3d 95 (1993).

Sometimes contracts have certain rights that may spring into effect.  These are called contingencies. For example, take your employer’s stock price.

Imagine your job has a contract to that will pay you a bonus if you do a great job and the stock price rises above $100.  If that happens, your employer will pay you one-million dollars.

one million dollars

You have 3 months to get the stock price above $100, and you’re doing amazing!  But your company does not want to pay you. They notice that your contract requires their help. 

Instead of helping you maximize profits, the company sits back and waits and takes no action. If the company does not do their part, you will fail and not get your bonus.

The duty of good faith and fair dealing requires the company to help you hit your target when they must cooperate to do so. The company cannot interfere, not help, and put you in a position to fail, then say you did not earn your bonus. 

That is performing the contract opportunistically to deprive you of your one million dollars.

Good Faith Case Law Round up

  1. A party cannot take advantage of a condition precedent the performance of which he has helped render impossible. Barrows v. Maco, Inc., 94 Ill.App.3d 959, 966 (1st 1981).
  2. Bad faith, or opportunistic advantage-taking, is the lack of cooperation depriving the other contracting party of his reasonable expectation. Hentze v. Unverfehrt, 237 Ill. App.3d 606,(1992).
  3. A party that participated in the hinderance of the condition, and they may not now claim the benefit of the failure of the required event. Yale Development Co. v. Oak Park Trust & Savings Bank, 26 Ill.App.3d 1015 (2nd 1975).

Good Faith Means You Do What You Promised

To conclude, good faith helps our economy have trust in the trillions of dollars of contracts that we depend on in our daily lives. 

As the American Bar Association said in their blog,

The theory behind this principle is that a party cannot interfere with or fail to cooperate with your performance and then complain about it.

From the pension funds, to pizza orders, and everything in between, all depend on good faith and fair dealing in their contracts.

So if you ever get the advice to take a dive, or to not perform your end of the bargain – you may have to explain to the person that you have a duty of good faith and fair dealing to live up to your end of the bargain.

You may also want to avoid doing business with them. 

If you have a contract dispute, call our offices at (309) 740-4033.

 

Thomas Howard was on the ball and got things done. Easy to work with, communicates very well, and I would recommend him anytime.

R. Martindale

What does Good Faith mean?| Good faith is for business| Tom Howard

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Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act

Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act

Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act

Illinois Uniform Fraudulent Transfers Act Info

Effective January 1, 1990, Illinois adopted the Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act. “The purpose of the Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act is to prevent fraudulent transfers of property by a debtor who intends to defraud creditors by placing assets beyond their reach.” Zurich American Insurance Co. v. Personnel Staffing Group, LLC, 2018 IL App (1st) 172281, ¶18, 105 N.E.3d 979, 423 Ill.Dec. 571. See also Harris Bank St. Charles v. Weber, 298 Ill.App.3d 1072, 700 N.E.2d 722, 727, 233 Ill.Dec. 194 (2d Dist. 1998) (“[T]he purpose of the Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act is to ‘invalidate otherwise sanctioned transactions made with a fraudulent intent.’ ”), quoting In re Marriage of Del Giudice, 287 Ill.App.3d 215, 678 N.E.2d 47, 49, 222 Ill.Dec. 640 (1st Dist. 1997).

Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act

Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act – stops lies

A new Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act Third District Appellate case that is of interest to secured lenders.

The case of Pluciennik v. Vandenberg provided the first time that Illinois applied the Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act (UFTA) and its definition of “asset” on an encumbered piece of real estate.

Plaintiffs filed a UFTA action seeking to avoid transfers of three parcels of real estate from companies owned and managed by Defendant to companies held in irrevocable trusts for the benefit of his minor daughters. Valid mortgages encumbered all the real estate transferred.

The Trial Court erred in determining, as a matter of law, that the real estate were not assets under the UFTA because they were fully encumbered because no evidence of the fair market value of the real estate was considered in granting a motion to dismiss the UFTA complaint.

“That the fair market value of encumbered property that exceeds the value of a valid lien qualifies as an asset under Illinois’s Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act. “

Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act (UFTA) Case Law

The trial court made a mistake by not taking evidence on the fair market value of the real estate transferred.

As a result, there continued to be a material issue of fact as to the reasonable value of the properties and whether, in light of the fair market value, the properties were fully encumbered.

Therefore, Illinois law recognizes the value of the asset over and above the encumbrance upon it to be subject to the UFTA.

How to Know if you Have a Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act (UFTA) Claim?

  1. Look at the both the fair market value of the asset,
  2. and check the payoff of the debt encumbering the asset
  3. If there is extra money beyond the collateral’s fair market value, then there is a UFTA claim.
Thomas Howard

Thomas Howard

Real Estate Lawyer

Whether this is your first land use issue or most recent, our office has helped people and businesses alike.

Thomas Howard was on the ball and got things done. Easy to work with, communicates very well, and I would recommend him anytime.
R. Martindale

Need A Business Lawyer?

Call our law offices with your legal questions for help on:

  1. real estate contracts
  2. business contract disputes
  3. Shareholder litigation
  4. cannabis business
  5. fraud actions
  6. mechanic's liens